Mass Communication: Meaning, Scope And Media


Media plays a vital role in shaping our society.  It plays a crucial role in mobilizing people to face challenging activities language being the first major development in human society, helped to put an end to communication problems.  Thus emerged the oral and written forms of communication with the advancement of science and technology, tools were devised for recording massages and transferring them among and between individuals.  Massages that were being conveyed included symbols words, hence we had verbal (words, symbols)and non verbal communication(Signs, gestures, feelings).communication is the shuttling of massages and ideas between individuals, where there is mutual gain till the goal is reached.  Communication comes from the latin word communis means “to share”. Communication is also a social process.

Media uses channels to carry the massage.  It includes not only the mechanical devices but also the institutions that uses these machines to transmit massages when we talk about the media of T.V, Radio, Newspapers, Magazines etc.  The media of radio. T.v, film, book publishing sound recording, news papers, magazines and internet have the largest audience, employ the most people and have the greatest impact and we are very much familiar of these.

The media available to use are basically of two kinds.  They are :

1)      Using of modern means of communication.

2)      Those which are known as traditional media.

The different media are :

1)       Print – printed word and pictures – pictures mostly appeal to the sense of sight.

2)      Radio – Sense of sound.

3)      Audio – Visual- which appeal to both visual and auditory sense.

4)      Traditional Media – folk dance, folklore, community singing, rural theatre.

5)      Oral communication – Public meeting, group discussions, individual contacts.

6)      Outdoor Media – Printed word and visual.

Eg : Posters, Cinema slides, hoardings etc


Media uses channels to carry the massage. Media includes not only the mechanical devices that transmit and sometimes store the massage but also the institutions that use these machines to transmit massage when we talk about the media of Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, sound recording, film and also the technology that goes into producing and distributing communication.  The media of T.V, film, book publishing sound recording, newspapers, magazines and internet have the largest audience, employ the most people and have the greatest impact.  They are also the ones with which most of us are most familiar.

Scope :

There are two aspects of scope.  They are : audience scope and subject scope.

Audience Scope :

It is necessary for the communicator to clearly identify the target audience of the communication.  It will also allow the communicator to tailor the communication to the particular needs of the audience.  The communicator must make sure that the target audience is clearly identified.  Communication may be forwarded, or copied without the distribution list, at which point the target audience definition is lost.

Subject Scope :

            A communication should always clearly identify the subject scope of the communication.  It is the specification of the information covered by the communication.  It may be more useful to specify the scope in terms of what is not covered by the communication.  The scope of a communication should appear as near to the start of the communication as possible.

Purpose :

A communication will always have a purpose.  A good technical communication will always have a purpose for the reader.  Most technical communications the purpose of the communication must be clear to the recipient of the communication.

Communication opens scope like advertising, films, newspapers, magazines, websites, T.V. channels, radio, corporate communications, press information bureau, central information service etc. Doing a course in mass communication requires a lot of skills, such as creativity, imagination, spontaneity, innovation and flexibility.  Any communication has a desired effect and it is the end of communication only if this takes place, communication is effective.  Communication has effect.  Noise is something that makes communication less effective.  To make it effective we have to have a dynamic interplay between source, massage, channel, audience.  It has short term and long term effect.  Changes in people’s knowledge, attitude, behavior and skill are long term effect.    Mass communication is a field interesting to be in and to make successful career in:

1)      Types of media and

2)      Its advantages and disadvantages

Mass Media Advantages and Disadvantages

  • Television  :  It reaches more people than any other medium.
  • Cable T.V : Better equipped to target a specific audience both psychographically and geographically more cost efficient, does not reach as many people.
  • Radio : Able to target specific audiences with higher frequency of the massage; need to buy 2-3 stations for good reach, not as expensive as television.
  • Newspapers : communicates details about arts organizations events; can geographically target a city or communities.
  • Magazines : Reach upscale audiences, higher quality graphics and environment; based on a weekly, monthly publishing cycle, it is difficult to develop an adequate frequency level.
  • Internet : Good support medium; communicates a lots of information for events.


Mass communication industry holds a prominent position in the society today.  Its scope is very vast.  Media becomes a part and parcel of daily life.  We look up to the media to gain an insight of what really is happening.  Mass communication keeps us informed, an educates us on the news that holds significance in same way or the other.  Without it, we would definitely have no scope to grow or  evolve.

The Mass communication industry provides exciting and well – paying  job opportunities in agencies, print media, broadcasting media, visual media and internet etc.  The biggest advantages which is associated with the mass communication industry is that it gives creatively inclined people a lot of opportunities to explore and experiment.

An interesting field to pursue a career in, the field of mass communication is definitely one of the leading industries which comes in with tremendous scope for mass communication students.  Mass communication courses encompasses various streams.  In general “Media” refers to various means of communication.  Mass communication has developed to be an integral aspect of all our lives, without which, we could cease to exist as a well – informed, developed, civilized nation.  The mass communication and the media industry are always on the lookout of hardworking and skilled professionals.

Meanings :

Communication is the process of exchanging information through a common system of symbols.  It takes a Wide Variety of forms – from two people having face to face conversation to hand signals to massage sent over the world.  Common forms of communication include speaking, writing, gesturing and broadcasting.  Communication means to  inform, tell, show or spread information.  When a person communicates, he/she establishes a common ground of understanding.

Communication can also be defined as the process by which information and feelings are shared by people through an exchange of verbal and non verbal massages.  It is also the creation of shared understanding through interaction among two or more agents.

1)      “Communication is transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence.  But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver” – G.G.Brown.

2)      “Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or massages” – fred G.Meyer.

Mass communication is an area of study that is institutionalized in various names like communication studies, communication sciences, communication arts, media studies, speech communication etc.  It is often recognized as a backbone of our society.  It is believed and said that it would be hard to construct a modern society without its active involvement.  These days a number of private and government institutes offering mass communication courses to the young aspirations and help them to make their career in any of the media fields like journalism, advertising, radio and public relations etc.


There are different process of mass communication.  They are :

Business communication:

The achievement of these objectives  largely depends upon proper coordination and integration of human effort in an organization.  It is the process which enables management to allocate and supervise the work of the employees.  The effectiveness of management largely depends upon the effectiveness  of their communication.

Characteristics of Business Communication :

Characteristics of Business Communication  continuous process. A short lived process needs proper understand leads to the achievement of the Organizational objective Dispels misunderstanding.

Functions of Communication

Functions of Communication information : Information refers to the role of communication in facilitating decision making and problem solving.

Informal Communication

Informal Communication when any one can tell anyone else anything informally, the result is a rapid flow of information along what is commonly known as grapevine.

Grapevine Communication

Benefits, Limitations and guidelines


Miscommunication organizational structure  :  All organization irrespective of their size, have their own communication techniques and each nurtures its own communication climate.

Incorrect choice of Medium :

Choosing and inappropriate communication medium can distort the image and block the intended meaning.

Information overload :  Too much information is bad because it reduces the audience’s ability to concentrate on the most important part of the massage.  There are two significant reasons for any massage to become complex in a business setting.  One, the difficult nature of the massage and the other, the difficulty in understanding it.

Steps to reduce Miscommunication

Step to reduce Miscommunication consider seriously the recipient of our massage.  We should think about how to send the massage i.e we should mode the verbal or written.  We should follow up our verbal massage with a written statement.

In Biology “Symbiosis” is defined as the association of two organisms for mutual benefit.  In  media the Television and film industries demonstrates what we might call a form of symbiosis.  Although spoken of individually, those media do not exist in a vacuum.  In the future, we are likely to see more examples of the synergy that  exists among all communication media.


Works Cited

1) The Dynamics of Mass Communication Media in the Digital Age – Joseph. R. Dominic, 27]

2)Mass Media Today, Ghosh Subir









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